Talaq or divorce is an important issue that has been turned into major controversy. Many people, with vested interests, have tried to showcase Islam in a bad light and have claimed that Islam oppresses women and discriminates against them.
This is simply an outlandish claim. Islam gave respect to women when they were treated like animals. Prophet Muhammad treated women equally. In his entire life, he never hit any of his wives and was known for his exemplary behavior towards them. When Aisha, the wife of Prophet was asked about his character, mother Aisha said, “his character was Qur’an’.
She implied that he was an exemplary follower of the Qur’anic teachings and lived by them his entire life. The Prophet’s equal treatment of women, many a times disturbed many of his Companions who had seen them being treated with disdain and without any iota of respect. Woman at that time was taken as a property. The Prophet ensured that she was able to come out of the oppressive clutches of the patriarchal society.
She was given respect, allowed to have property of her own, instead of being owned and consulted at important times, even during wars and peace negotiations. The Agreement of Hudaibiya could have been a very different story, had it not been for the visionary Umm Salma, the mother of the believers. She advised the Prophet at the time. The Prophet followed her advice and the whole problem was solved.
Here is the translation of all the verses of the Qur’an regarding talaq or divorce.
Verses including the word Divorce
But if their intention is firm for divorce, Allah heareth and knoweth all things. (Surah Al-Baqara, 227)
Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods.Nor is it lawful for them to hide what Allah Hath created in their wombs, if they have faith in Allah and the Last Day.And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation.And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a degree (of advantage) over them.And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise. (Surah Al-Baqara, 228)
A divorce is only permissible twice: after that, the parties should either hold Together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness.It is not lawful for you, (Men), to take back any of your gifts (from your wives), except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah.If ye (judges) do indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah, there is no blame on either of them if she give something for her freedom.These are the limits ordained by Allah.so do not transgress them if any do transgress the limits ordained by Allah, such persons wrong (Themselves as well as others). (Surah Al-Baqara, 229)
So if a husband divorces his wife (irrevocably), He cannot, after that, re-marry her until after she has married another husband and He has divorced her.In that case there is no blame on either of them if they re-unite, provided they feel that they can keep the limits ordained by Allah.Such are the limits ordained by Allah, which He makes plain to those who understand. (Surah Al-Baqara, 230)
When ye divorce women, and they fulfil the term of their (‘Iddat), either take them back on equitable terms or set them free on equitable terms; but do not take them back to injure them, (or) to take undue advantage; if any one does that; He wrongs his own soul.Do not treat Allah.s Signs as a jest, but solemnly rehearse Allah.s favours on you, and the fact that He sent down to you the Book and Wisdom, for your instruction.And fear Allah, and know that Allah is well acquainted with all things. (Surah Al-Baqara, 231)
When ye divorce women, and they fulfil the term of their (‘Iddat), do not prevent them from marrying their (former) husbands, if they mutually agree on equitable terms.This instruction is for all amongst you, who believe in Allah and the Last Day.That is (the course Making for) most virtue and purity amongst you and Allah knows, and ye know not. (Surah Al-Baqara, 232)
There is no blame on you if ye divorce women before consummation or the fixation of their dower; but bestow on them (A suitable gift), the wealthy according to his means, and the poor according to his means;- A gift of a reasonable amount is due from those who wish to do the right thing. (Surah Al-Baqara, 236)
And if ye divorce them before consummation, but after the fixation of a dower for them, then the half of the dower (Is due to them), unless they remit it or (the man’s half) is remitted by him in whose hands is the marriage tie; and the remission (of the man’s half) is the nearest to righteousness.And do not forget Liberality between yourselves.For Allah sees well all that ye do. (Surah Al-Baqara, 237)
For divorced women Maintenance (should be provided) on a reasonable (scale).This is a duty on the righteous. (Surah Al-Baqara, 241)
But if ye decide to take one wife in place of another, even if ye had given the latter a whole treasure for dower, Take not the least bit of it back: Would ye take it by slander and manifest wrong? (Surah An-Nisa, 20)
And how could ye take it when ye have gone in unto each other, and they have Taken from you a solemn covenant? (Surah An-Nisa, 21)
If ye fear a breach between them twain, appoint (two) arbiters, one from his family, and the other from hers; if they wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation: For Allah hath full knowledge, and is acquainted with all things. (Surah An-Nisa, 35)
O Prophet! Say to thy Consorts: “If it be that ye desire the life of this World, and its glitter,- then come! I will provide for your enjoyment and set you free in a handsome manner. (Surah Al-Ahzab, 28)
But if ye seek Allah and His Messenger, and the Home of the Hereafter, verily Allah has prepared for the well-doers amongst you a great reward. (Surah Al-Ahzab, 29)
Behold! Thou didst say to one who had received the grace of Allah and thy favour: “Retain thou (in wedlock) thy wife, and fear Allah.” But thou didst hide in thy heart that which Allah was about to make manifest: thou didst fear the people, but it is more fitting that thou shouldst fear Allah. Then when Zaid had dissolved (his marriage) with her, with the necessary (formality), We joined her in marriage to thee: in order that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the Believers in (the matter of) marriage with the wives of their adopted sons, when the latter have dissolved with the necessary (formality) (their marriage) with them. And Allah.s command must be fulfilled. (Surah Al-Ahzab, 37)
O ye who believe! When ye marry believing women, and then divorce them before ye have touched them, no period of ‘Iddat have ye to count in respect of them: so give them a present. And set them free in a handsome manner. (Surah Al-Ahzab, 49)
It is not lawful for thee (to marry more) women after this, nor to change them for (other) wives, even though their beauty attract thee, except any thy right hand should possess (as handmaidens): and Allah doth watch over all things. (Surah Al-Ahzab, 52)
If any men among you divorce their wives by Zihar (calling them mothers), they cannot be their mothers: None can be their mothers except those who gave them birth. And in fact they use words (both) iniquitous and false: but truly Allah is one that blots out (sins), and forgives (again and again). (Surah Al-Mujadala, 2)
But those who divorce their wives by Zihar, then wish to go back on the words they uttered,- (It is ordained that such a one) should free a slave before they touch each other: Thus are ye admonished to perform: and Allah is well-acquainted with (all) that ye do. (Surah Al-Mujadala, 3)
O Prophet! When ye do divorce women, divorce them at their prescribed periods, and count (accurately), their prescribed periods: And fear Allah your Lord: and turn them not out of their houses, nor shall they (themselves) leave, except in case they are guilty of some open lewdness, those are limits set by Allah. and any who transgresses the limits of Allah, does verily wrong his (own) soul: thou knowest not if perchance Allah will bring about thereafter some new situation. (Surah At-Talaq, 1)
Thus when they fulfil their term appointed, either take them back on equitable terms or part with them on equitable terms; and take for witness two persons from among you, endued with justice, and establish the evidence (as) before Allah. Such is the admonition given to him who believes in Allah and the Last Day. And for those who fear Allah, He (ever) prepares a way out, (Surah At-Talaq, 2)
Such of your women as have passed the age of monthly courses, for them the prescribed period, if ye have any doubts, is three months, and for those who have no courses (it is the same): for those who carry (life within their wombs), their period is until they deliver their burdens: and for those who fear Allah, He will make their path easy. (Surah At-Talaq, 4)
That is the Command of Allah, which He has sent down to you: and if any one fears Allah, He will remove his ills, from him, and will enlarge his reward. (Surah At-Talaq, 5)
O ye who believe! save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is Men and Stones, over which are (appointed) angels stern (and) severe, who flinch not (from executing) the Commands they receive from Allah, but do (precisely) what they are commanded. (Surah At-Tahrim, 6)